Gut Microbiome

Do you still have you appendix

  • I have all my original parts

    Votes: 1 20.0%
  • I lost my tonsils but not the appendix

    Votes: 3 60.0%
  • I lost both my apendix and tonsils

    Votes: 1 20.0%
  • I lost my apendix an almost died.

    Votes: 0 0.0%

  • Total voters
A study in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology finds that many more animals have appendixes than was thought, and that the appendix is not merely a remnant of a digestive organ called the cecum. All of which means that the appendix might not be so useless. Steve Mirsky reports

Two years ago, Duke University Medical Center researchers said that the supposedly useless appendix is actually where good gut bacteria safely hide out during some unpleasant intestinal conditions. [More]

Two years ago, Duke University Medical Center researchers said that the supposedly useless appendix is actually where good gut bacteria safely hide out during some unpleasant intestinal conditions.

Now the research team has looked at the appendix over evolutionary history. They found that animals have had appendixes for about 80 million years. And the organ has evolved separately at least twice, once among the weird Australian marsupials and another time in the regular old mammal lineage that we belong to.

Darwin thought that only a few animals have an appendix and that the human version was what was left of a digestive organ called the cecum. But the new study found that 70 percent of rodent and primate groups have species with an appendix. And some living animals have a cecum and an appendix. If Darwin had known about species that had both organs, he probably would have revised his views of the appendix, the researchers note.

Ironically, it’s natural selection that keeps the human appendix from shrinking away completely. Because smaller ones are more likely to become infected. And keep your genes out of the pool.


Staff member
I need to find an Article I saw about this, It said that overweight people have a common colony of flora and fauna in there intestine, and basically that it was more efficient at extracting nutrients from the food.

It was suggested that obese people could flush there colonies with antibiotics and recolonise by inoculating there system with a skinny persons fauna
so perhaps it would be helpful for some to take shit from you D

you can keep your inefficient colonies, Ill stick to my bacon diet and the ability to survive on minimum intake.
Bugs Inside: What Happens When the Microbes That Keep Us Healthy Disappear?

Bacteria, viruses and fungi have been primarily cast as the villains in the battle for better human health. But a growing community of researchers is sounding the warning that many of these microscopic guests are really ancient allies.

Having evolved along with the human species, most of the miniscule beasties that live in and on us are actually helping to keep us healthy, just as our well-being promotes theirs. In fact, some researchers think of our bodies as superorganisms, rather than one organism teeming with hordes of subordinate invertebrates.

The human body has some 10 trillion human cells—but 10 times that number of microbial cells. So what happens when such an important part of our bodies goes missing?

With rapid changes in sanitation, medicine and lifestyle in the past century, some of these indigenous species are facing decline, displacement and possibly even extinction. In many of the world's larger ecosystems, scientists can predict what might happen when one of the central species is lost, but in the human microbial environment—which is still largely uncharacterized—most of these rapid changes are not yet understood. "This is the next frontier and has real significance for human health, public health and medicine," says Betsy Foxman, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan (U.M.) School of Public Health in Ann Arbor.

Meanwhile, each new generation in developed countries comes into the world with fewer of these native populations. "They're actually missing some component of their microbiota that they've evolved to have," Foxman says.

Mice have survived largely free from microbial populations in labs. But out in the world, traditional microbes are an important line of defense against external and possibly dangerous invaders. By occupying and even protecting their historic niche, this small fauna can keep out more foreign bacteria and viruses, in turn helping to maintain their human host's health. "Someone who didn't have their microbes, they'd be naked," says Martin Blaser, a professor of microbiology and chair of the Department of Medicine at New York University Langone Medical Center in New York City.

Companies have embraced aspects of microbial research, spreading antibacterials to kill broad swaths of microbes or promoting probiotic foods to introduce other groups of bacteria into the body. These extremes, however, can make scientists in the field squirm. "There is just so much we don't know," Foxman says about manipulating these dynamics. And changes can occur quickly, even when they are unintentional.

Potent treatments
Many of the changes in the human microbiome that have surfaced in recent decades are a result of well-intentioned—and primarily salutary—developments in medical treatment and prevention. For example, overprescription of antibiotics, real lifesavers ever since the mid–20th century, has sparked the evolution of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. More subtle side effects of antibiotics are just beginning to be discovered.

"When antibiotics were first introduced, they were miraculous drugs—and they still are," Blaser says. "But it really wasn't fully considered that antibiotics select for resistance." And an antibiotic will not only impact the infection it is targeted for. "It will select for resistance across the microbiome," he added.

Common side effects of antibiotic treatments, such as yeast infections, are a prime example of these silent shifts. Even as it is being taken for an infection in another part of the body altogether, an antibiotic can kill the organisms that habitually keep yeast populations in check, allowing an unintended outbreak to occur.

Whereas some of these changes are transient and possibly a worthwhile trade-off for antibiotic treatment, others are more lasting and deleterious. As Blaser notes, "the [antibiotic resistance] selection can persist for years and possibly permanently." The vanishing gastric Helicobacter pylori bacteria, for example, have been facing eradication in the U.S. and other developed countries in large part from antibiotic use. Although this bacteria's demise has been pegged to some positive outcomes, such as a decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer, shrinking its populations can also increase the risk for various reflux diseases by upsetting the regulation of hormones and pH levels.
Additionally, "H. pylori–positive individuals have lower risks of childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis and skin allergies than those without H. pylori," Blaser and Stanley Falkow, of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford School of Medicine, wrote in an essay published in November in Nature Reviews Microbiology. (Scientific American is part of Nature Publishing Group.) They also posited that due to the bacteria's role in mediating the hormone ghrelin, which helps regulate fat development and hunger, it might also "be contributing to the current epidemics of early-life obesity, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic syndromes."

This shift in such a prominent bacterial community is detectible through various medical tests, but transitions in many other species with positive impacts on human health may still be going unnoticed. "If [H. pylori is] disappearing…might there be other things that are disappearing?" Blaser asks. He worries that many other, less studied species—and even certain metabolic pathways—might also be on their way out due to antibiotic use and other lifestyle changes.

Blaser doesn't call for abandoning a whole class of effective drugs, but he does advocate for a better understanding of the potential trade-offs—even if we might not yet have all the answers. "I don't think anyone was putting that trade-off on the plate," says Blaser, who notes that both doctors and patients should reserve antibiotic use to cases where they are necessary.

Precarious protection
For many illnesses, modern medicine and research has bypassed the treatment phase by developing effective prevention—ranging from vaccines to public health measures to antibacterial products. And the very successes of these measures "shows that we are changing the microbiota," Blaser notes.

The vaccine for pneumococcal disease has been, by most accounts, a success story, reducing the number of pneumonia cases and infections. But Streptococcus pneumoniae is, in fact, a frequent occupant of healthy individuals, and keeping this element out of the human body has opened space for different and potentially more harmful pathogens. "The pneumococcal vaccine, which is extremely well intended, may be having some untoward consequences," Blaser says. Staphylococcus aureus, which causes staph infections (a growing number of which are community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA) and the traditional S. pneumoniae are "competitors, and that loss of the former is leading to the expansion of the latter," Blaser and Falkow wrote in their Nature Reviews Microbiology paper. Like antibiotics, however, vaccines are still important, Blaser says, but some of these long-term consequences should be examined in the future.

Like modern medical developments, improved sanitation and the proliferation of cleansers have saved countless lives and made the rest of us seemingly healthier, but microbiologists are also rooting out the dark side to clean living.

Those who subscribe to the "hygiene hypothesis" assert that overall cleanliness has resulted in the recent increase of ailments such as allergies and other immune system abnormalities. Such a line of thinking asserts that "if you're a good parent you should have your children eat dirt," Blaser says. Indeed, a study published online December 7 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine found that even while in the womb, mice whose mothers were exposed to a common barnyard microbe (Acinetobacter lwoffii F78) were less likely to suffer from allergies and asthma.

An overexuberance for the hygiene hypothesis, however, may be leading people astray, Blaser notes. "It's my hypothesis that the microbes that are present in dirt are irrelevant to humans," he says. "What are relevant are the microbes that we've had for hundreds of thousands of years—[and] are disappearing."

Extreme hygiene, on the level of using antibacterial products, is an asset in health care settings, such as hospitals, where risk of infection is high, Blaser notes. But such measures are not likely working to our long-term advantage elsewhere, where the "benefit is minimal if any," he says. "We have to begin to realize that we may be doing some harm—we may be losing some of the good guys and thus become more susceptible to the bad guys."

On the other end of the spectrum, popular probiotic products, which promise to introduce beneficial bacteria by way of fortified food, such as yogurt, are just one of the ways the primitive understanding of human microbiota has begun to permeate popular culture. But many researchers think confidence in such an approach is premature. "There's clearly something there," Foxman says, "but if you want to push a system to be a healthy system, you have to know what a healthy system is."

And that's something researchers are frantically trying to figure out. Blaser says: "If we understood what we're losing, then we could replace it." He imagines a future where vaccinations are not just for viruses but for microbial populations, as well. Infants may one day be screened for native microbiota and given immunizations to fill in important missing niches.
Mapping the microscopic
Even though it is such an apparently integral and ancient aspect of human health, scientists are still grasping for better ways to study human microbiota—before it changes beyond historical recognition. Borrowing models from outside of medicine has helped many in the field gain a better understanding of this living world within us. "The important concept is about extinctions," Blaser says. "It's ecology."

Deborah Goldberg, a plant ecologist by trade and professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at U.M., happened upon the field by chance, but she has found her ecological perspective to be quite "relevant in talking about pathogens," she says. Microbiologists had already begun to apply rudimentary ecological thinking about niches and disturbance to microbial work, she says. But newer developments in the field of ecology—from invasion biology to spatial dynamics and dispersal—have brought new insights, notes Goldberg, who co-authored a 2007 paper with Foxman in Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases about human microbiota.

For many current research purposes, however, the ecological model can be daunting. "As an overall approach, ecology is hard," Goldberg says. "It's complex systems and highly dimensional."

These challenges have led many to think of human microbiota more as biologists conceptualize organ systems, looking for inputs and outputs and putting aside—for now—what happens in the so-called black box. "It's conceptually easy to think of it as an organ system," Foxman says. "But there are lots of reasons to go into the black box…. Ultimately, we really do need to understand the system."

The first step in understanding these systems is simply taking stock of what archaea, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses are present in healthy individuals. This massive micro undertaking has been ongoing since 2007 through the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Human Microbiome Project. So far it has turned up some surprisingly rich data, including genetic sequencing for some 205 of the different genera that live on healthy human skin.

Despite the flood of new data, Foxman laughs when asked if there is any hope for a final report from the Human Microbiome Project any time soon. "This is the very, very beginning," she says, comparing this project with the NIH's Human Genome Project, which jump-started a barrage of new genetic research. "There are basic, basic questions that we don't know the answers to," she says, such as how different microbiota are between random individuals or family members; how much microbiota change over time; or how related the microbiota are to each other on or inside a person's body.

Rapid advances in sequencing technology, however, have allowed researchers to accelerate their work by leaps and bounds. "I can do today what I couldn't do six months ago," Foxman says. "It's going to be a wild ride [with] lots of surprises," she adds. "We will be getting in that black box pretty quickly, but we may not like what we find."



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Should you take this crap from family or a stranger

You can give it, take it or cop it. It can hit the fan and sometimes life forces you to eat a sandwich made from it, but it's also proving to be a cure for a deadly superbug.
With all the poo jokes out of the way, a dangerous strain of disease which can cause kidney failure and even death is being successfully treated with everyday bacteria found in the stools of healthy people.

Mutated by the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, Clostridium difficile — a bacteria that can take over the intestines and destroy the bowel — kills up to 300 people a day in US hospitals and is now in Australia.

Diseases caused by the rogue strain have been detected in NSW hospitals, but patients have been cured by an alternative treatment known as bacteriotherapy, or faecal transplant.
Healthy bacteria from a donor poo is transplanted into the colon of the sick patient with remarkable results.

ELLEN Blackwell was close to death. The Baltimore woman was spending about $US7000 a month on antibiotics to treat a year-long Clostridium difficile infection, yet was unable to stomach anything other than crackers and water.
She had lost a significant amount of weight and rarely left the house. It appeared the only means of eradicating the antibiotic-resistant bacteria was through the removal of her colon.
But Sudhir Dutta, at Baltimore's Sinai Medical Hospital, had another idea. He suggested a procedure whereby Blackwell's colon would be treated with the healthy fecal matter of a compatible donor - in this case, her daughter Catherine - via an orally inserted tube.
Dutta explained that the "super-probiotic" in Catherine's stool sample would reintroduce "good" bacteria into Blackwell's gut, which would then destroy the C. difficile colonies.
Blackwell agreed. Within 24 hours of the procedure, she felt like eating.

"We have a 97 per cent cure rate with a single infusion of flora into the colon," said Professor Thomas Borody from The Centre for Digestive Diseases, which has so far conducted over 1500 transplants.
Robert Silberstein spent six months fighting clostridium difficile disease and none of the antibiotics thrown at him eliminated the bug. The 38-year-old lawyer had no options left after all treatments failed.
"I had relapse after relapse and it was fair to say there were no options," the Rose Bay father of three said.
He endured severe pain and constant diarrhoea as his colon was being destroyed by the toxins released by C. difficile.
Mr Silberstein's doctor, Royal North Shore infectious diseases specialist Dr Bernie Hudson, said his patient was either going to lose his colon or die, so he referred him to the Centre for Digestive Diseases for a faecal transplant.
The bacteria from the healthy donor stool took on the superbugs and overpowered them with almost immediate effect.

Despite countless success stories, FMT remains a non-standard, eleventh-hour procedure for patients with debilitating and otherwise unresponsive gastrointestinal disorders.
Its effectiveness is still something of a medical mystery. There are no published randomised controlled trials, considered among the most reliable and authoritative pieces of medical evidence, to support its usage; all of the evidence for its benefits stems from observational studies.
The US is moving towards rectifying this, however; the procedure should be covered by the US Medicare scheme by about 2013. But in Australia, Borody laments, "there's not even a committee set up to pursue this".
Part of the reason for this, he admits, is that C. difficile colitis, which has reached epidemic levels in the US, has yet to gain a significant foothold in Australia.
"It's very difficult to comprehend how huge the American situation is," he says.
"C. difficile kills more people there each year than all the soldiers who died in Vietnam - 100,000 v 76,000.
"I was talking to one of the gastroenterologists at Mount Sinai Hospital in Miami, and he said that C. difficile infection is the second most common reason for colectomy in all of Florida."



Staff member
Taking shit from someone else for your own good and other unpleasent medicine.

fecal.jpgFecal Transplant
For those of you suffering from an infection caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile (“C. diff”), there s a last-ditch procedure that has had a success rate of 85 to 95%: infusing someone else s feces into your body. C. diff infection arises from stays in hospitals and other health care facilities, where the use of antibiotics may destroy good bacteria in a patient s colon, allowing the C. diff to flourish. The infection typically causes severe stomach problems like diarrhea and colitis (swelling of the colon), plus blood poisoning and even death. A fecal transplant restores normal bowel function by repopulating the colon with healthy bacteria. The donated feces — typically provided by a close family member — are blended, filtered, and fed through a tube into the patient s nose down to the stomach. Several teaspoons are all that s needed for complete recovery within a few weeks.

post253-150x150.jpgMaggot Therapy
In 2004, maggots became the first live animals approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a “medical device,” having proven effective in treating wounds that are having difficulty healing. Since ancient times, maggots have been used to treat wounds around the world, from the Mayans of Central America to the Aborigines of Australia and the hill people of Burma. In the US, they were used widely in medicine until the 1940s, when penicillin became the antibiotic of choice. However, since the 1990s, with the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, maggots have become a more viable option. Fly larvae are effective because they liquefy and consume dead tissue, kill harmful bacteria and stimulate healing. During therapy, maggots are placed in the wound and covered in a cage or pouch to keep them contained within the infected area for two days. Several two-day sessions may be needed for the wound to heal completely.

leech2.jpgLeech Therapy
Shortly after maggots were approved by the FDA, leeches likewise were recognized as a medical device. (Both are even covered by some insurance agencies.) Like maggots, leeches have long been used in medicine, having been documented in ancient Greek texts as a means of bloodletting. Today, medical leeches are used differently — not to extract significant amounts of blood, but rather to prevent blood from coagulating during surgery (leech saliva contains a blood thinner called hirudin) and to promote circulation of blood during operations to reattach body parts. Additionally, leeches suck out excess blood, deliver a local anesthetic to the wound and produce an antibiotic that kills dangerous bacteria. Leeches are typically used one at a time and replaced as they become full and drop off (every 20 minutes or so) for 24 to 48 hours, and then less frequently for another few days if needed.

naturalorifice.jpgNatural Orifice Surgery
Natural orifice surgery involves operating on or removing an abdominal organ through an existing body orifice — typically the mouth or the vagina. The technique avoids unsightly external scarring, requires shorter post-op healing time and may cause less pain in the long run. In 2007, the first operation removing a gall bladder through a patient s mouth was performed, followed by a gall bladder removal through a vagina and a kidney removal through a vagina. Despite the natural orifice concept, a small incision might need to be made at the patient s navel in order to insert an endoscopic camera used to guide surgeons as they remove the organ through the orifice. Unlike traditional surgery, which requires a five- or six-inch abdominal incision and two to three days of hospitalization, natural orifice patients can be at home within 24 hours.

pmu2.jpgHorse Urine (and People Urine, Too)
Premarin is a hormone replacement drug that has been on the market since 1942 and has been used by millions of post-menopausal women to treat hot flashes, burning, itching and vaginal dryness, as well as to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, most people don t realize that the name Premarin is, like the pill itself, derived from “pregnant mare urine.” The urine is gathered on hundreds of “PMU farms” that house pregnant horses (and are the target of protests from animal rights activists), and the extracted estrogen is used in the manufacture of Premarin pills, creams, injections, patches and vaginal rings. Ironically, post-menopausal women in turn are the source of urine used in the production of the fertility drug ingredient Menotropin, used in medicines like Pergonal, Menopur, Menogon, Repronex and HMG Massone.

hookworm.jpgIntestinal Worm Therapy
Intestinal worm therapy (AKA helminthic therapy) involves the introduction of parasitic worms — either hookworms or whipworms — into the body to treat a range of diseases, from inflammatory bowel disease to asthma to multiple sclerosis, lupus, arthritis, hay fever and various allergies. The theory behind the treatment is that because of increased focus on hygiene in modern society, a lack of exposure to such parasites increases susceptibility to diseases by preventing the growth of the body s immune system. By introducing the worms, doctors jump-start patients immune systems, enabling them to more readily fight illness. The worms are either taken orally (whipworms) or applied using a bandage (hookworms) that allows them to crawl into the patient s body through the skin. Whipworms live on average from 18 to 30 months in the body, while hookworms live three to seven years. While worm therapy has yet to gain widespread acceptance in the US, various studies and trial results have shown it to be helpful in battling various illnesses. Although there is some risk involved with the introduction of intestinal worms into the body, they are generally deemed safe in the small numbers used in helminthic therapy.

toothimplant.jpgTooth Implant in the Eye
A surgical procedure pioneered in England to bring sight to the blind involves implanting a tooth in the patient s eye socket. During the procedure, a section of the patient s tooth is removed and chiseled to hold a man-made lens and anchor it in place. It s covered with a section of skin grafted from the inside of the patient s cheek and used in conjunction with a grafted cornea. A living tooth is needed because of the chance that the eye could reject a plastic implant.


Re: Taking shit from someone else for your own good and other unpleasent medicine.

I knew about the shit and horse urine but had never heard of the others.

Stumpy McDugal

Cracker OG
Staff member
Re: Taking shit from someone else for your own good and other unpleasent medicine.

You owe me $17.45 that I just spent on dinner!


Staff member
Re: Taking shit from someone else for your own good and other unpleasent medicine.

If you think thats bad !
Noises in her head were flesh-eating maggots

A British woman returned from a holiday in Peru hearing scratching noises inside her head to be told she was being attacked by flesh-eating maggots living inside her ear.
Rochelle Harris, 27, said she remembered dislodging a fly from her ear while in Peru but thought nothing more of it until she started getting headaches and pains down one side of her face and woke up in Britain one morning with liquid on her pillow.
Thinking she had a routine ear infection caused by a mosquito bite, she sought medical treatment at the Royal Derby Hospital in northern England, where a consultant noticed maggots in a small hole in her ear-canal.
"I was very scared. Were they in my brain?" said Harris, recounting her ordeal in a new Discovery Channel documentary series called "Bugs, Bites and Parasites" to be aired in the UK from July 21.
Doctors tried first to flush the maggots out of the ear using olive oil.
"It was the longest few hours that I have ever had to wait... I could still feel them and hear them and knowing what those scratching sounds were, and knowing what that wriggling feeling was, that just made it all the worse," she said.
When flushing the maggots out failed, the medics resorted to surgery and found a "writhing mass of maggots" within her ear, raising concern they could eat into her brain.
The surgery removed a family of eight maggots. Analysis found that a New World Army Screw Worm fly had laid eggs inside Harris's ear.
"I'm not so squeamish around those kinds of bugs now. How can I be? They've been in my ear!" Harris said.


Staff member
Re: Should you take this crap from family or a stranger

'Poop' pills can treat C. difficile, Calgary doctor says

But handmade pills containing bacteria from the stools of a healthy people not ready for mass production

Forget the enema bag and the tube that snakes down the throat to the intestines — the future of treatment for persistent Clostridium difficile infections may come in pill form.
A Calgary doctor who has been treating difficult-to-cure C. difficile for years with fecal transplants is reporting he has created what are in essence "poop" pills — and they do the trick.
Infectious diseases expert Dr. Tom Louie, a pioneer in the use of fecal transplants for C. difficile in Canada, has treated 27 patients with his handmade pills, and all 27 were cleared of their infections.
"They came in for lunch on an empty stomach ... and took 24 to 30 pills on average," Louie, said of the regimen, which he described to fellow scientists at the IDWeek conference in San Francisco on Thursday.

That's because the pills currently used by Louie can't be mass produced and given to anyone who wants to try a fecal transplant for recurrent C. diff infection. Each patient is administered his or her own set of pills, containing bacteria from the stools of a healthy relative in most cases.

Stool processed down to bacteria

To make his capsules, Louie took stool from donors and processed the material down to just the bacteria within the stool. From between 150 and 200 grams of stool he got two to three teaspoons of concentrate, which he said had the consistency of river mud or clay, and that, diluted, was piped into capsules. Each pill was encased in three layers of gelatin capsules, to ensure they could survive the trip through the highly-acidic stomach.
"The downside of this whole study is that it is a bespoke process that you have to prepare it for each individual," explained Emma Allen-Vercoe, a microbiologist at the University of Guelph who has been working on developing a ready-to-use treatment called Repoopulate.
"I think the thing is that if you're going to take poop and process it into capsules, you need to have a specific lab that is geared up to do that. It's not the sort of thing that you can just do in your garage, you know, or even in a clinical microbiology lab," she said.
C. difficile infections can occur when people who are on antibiotics ingest spores of the bacterium. Because the antibiotics disrupt the person's normal gut flora — various bacteria that normally live harmoniously in a person's gastro-intestinal tract — C. difficile bacteria can flourish and cause persistent and lifestyle-limiting diarrhea.



Army Cracker
Re: Should you take this crap from family or a stranger

A cure is a cure. The alternative is unacceptable. Makes one wonder how many other meds are not produced that really work. Profit is King in the "Pill makers" world. If it makes them a lot of money we will see it. If not, well there's the problem. Shame


Staff member
Re: That's No Vestigial Organ, That's My Appendix

You Can Sell Your Poop For $13,000 a Year
Some patients need fecal transplants to aid their digestive system Money definitely doesn’t grow on trees, but it might be growing in your bowels. If you’re really healthy, you can sell your poop to sick people who need it for as much as $13,000 a year.
People who are infected with a bacteria called C. difficile need healthy fecal matter in their gut in order to survive — otherwise they need to be on constant antibiotic treatment. Some people with Crohn’s disease also benefit from fecal transplants. So a company called Open Biome has been facilitating fecal transplants to patients in need, and paying healthy poopers a hefty sum for their services.
Fecal matter is transferred either through endoscopy or swallowed capsules, and Open Biome has already shipped about 2,000 treatments to almost 200 hospitals, according to the Washington Post. They’ll pay you $40 per sample, plus an extra $50 if you come in 5 days a week (the donations have to be made on-site.) The only thing is, you have to be super-healthy: only about 4% of prospective donors make the cut.
Open Biome gives their anonymous donors names like Vladimir Pootin, Albutt Einstein, and Dumpledore, to help make the poop-handling thing go a little more smoothly, according to a New Yorker piece on the poop-donation industry. So who knows? Maybe you could be the next Rumpoostiltskin.

[Washington Post]


Staff member
Re: That's No Vestigial Organ, That's My Appendix

You would become rich


Staff member
Re: That's No Vestigial Organ, That's My Appendix

<yt-formatted-string class="style-scope ytd-video-primary-info-renderer" style="--yt-endpoint-color:hsl(206.1, 79.3%, 52.7%);">How the Gut Microbiome affects the Brain and Mind</yt-formatted-string>


LONG Version <yt-formatted-string class="style-scope ytd-video-primary-info-renderer" style="--yt-endpoint-color:hsl(206.1, 79.3%, 52.7%);"> Microbiomes and Aging </yt-formatted-string>

Being a citizen scientist at the American Gut project

The process is simple, here’s what you need to do to get involved:

  1. Make a monetary contribution that covers the cost of sample processing, sequencing, and analysis (this is where the crowd funding comes in).
  2. We will send you a sample collection kit in the mail.
  3. Collect your samples, answer some dietary and lifestyle questions, and mail the sample kit back to us.
  4. We’ll analyze the samples and upload the results to your own participant web portal (see more about this on our 101 page).
  5. That’s it! Quick and painless.
Because the American Gut project is a citizen science project, you get some cool information about the microbes that call your body home while providing us with the priceless data that will enable us to start identifying microbiome trends and to begin answering intriguing questions about the connection between our microbes and our health. Here’s to the power of citizen science!

Insurance paid ?
SmartGut™ is the world’s first sequencing-based clinical microbiome test, providing actionable information on dozens of bacteria to help you and your doctor manage gut conditions like Inflammatory Bowel Disease, (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) including Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease, and even obesity and diabetes. SmartGut is available through healthcare providers.
Could it be your gut keeping you awake at night?
What if the trillions of microbes sitting in our small intestines – known collectively as the microbiome or microbiota – were actually affecting our mood, digestion, overall health and ability to get a full eight hours’ shut-eye?

feed your microbes



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great show on prime

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People with autism often suffer from gut problems, but nobody has known why. Researchers have now discovered the same gene mutations - found both in the brain and the gut - could be the cause.
The discovery confirms a gut-brain nervous system link in autism, opening a new direction in the search for potential treatments that could ease behavioral issues associated with autism by targeting the gut.



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Parkinson’s disease may originate in the intestines

A theory that Parkinson's disease can arise in the intestinal system and from there migrate to the brain has now gained support from research conducted at Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital.
2019.09.02 | Mette Louise Ohana
The protein which attacks the brain got from the small intestine to the brain via the peripheral nerves in experimental trials on rats. Photo: Colourbox
The protein which attacks the brain got from the small intestine to the brain via the peripheral nerves in experimental trials on rats. Photo: Colourbox

In 2003, a German neuropathologist proposed that Parkinson’s disease, which attacks the brain, actually might originate from the gut of the patients. Researchers from Aarhus have now delivered decisive supportive evidence after seeing the disease migrate from the gut to the brain and heart of laboratory rats. The scientific journal Acta Neuropathologica has just published the results, which have grabbed the attention of neuroscientific researchers and doctors internationally.
Harmful proteins on the move
Parkinson's disease is characterized by slowly destroying the brain due to the accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein and the subsequent damage to nerve cells. The disease leads to shaking, muscle stiffness, and characteristic slow movements of sufferers. In the new research project, the researchers used genetically modified laboratory rats which over express large amounts of the alpha-synuclein protein. These rats have an increased propensity to accumulate harmful varieties of alpha-synuclein protein and to develop symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson’s patients. The researchers initiated the process by injecting alpha-synuclein into the small intestines of the rats. According to professor Per Borghammer and postdoc Nathalie Van Den Berge, the experiment was intended to demonstrate that the protein would subsequently spread in a predictable fashion to the brain.
"After two months, we saw that the alpha-synuclein had travelled to the brain via the peripheral nerves with involvement of precisely those structures known to be affected in connection with Parkinson's disease in humans. After four months, the magnitude of the pathology was even greater. It was actually pretty striking to see how quickly it happened,” says Per Borghammer, who is professor at the Department of Clinical Medicine at Aarhus University.
Symptoms in the intestine twenty years before the diagnosis
Per Borghammer explains that patients with Parkinson’s disease often already have significant damage to their nervous system at the time of diagnosis, but that it is actually possible to detect pathological alpha-synuclein in the gut up to twenty years before diagnosis.
"With this new study, we've uncovered exactly how the disease is likely to spread from the intestines of people. We probably cannot develop effective medical treatments that halts the disease without knowing where it starts and how it spreads - so this is an important step in our research," says Per Borghammer, adding:
"Parkinson’s is a complex disease that we’re still trying to understand. However, with this study and a similar study in the USA that has recently arrived at the same result using mice, the suspicion that the disease begins in the gut of some patients has gained considerable support.”
The research project at Aarhus University also showed that the harmful alpha-synuclein not only travel from the intestines to the brain, but also to the heart.
"For many years, we have known that Parkinson patients have extensive damage to the nervous system of the heart, and that the damage occurs early on. We've just never been able to understand why. The present study shows that the heart is damaged very fast, even though the pathology started in the intestine, and we can continue to build on this knowledge in our coming research," says Per Borghammer.
The research results – more information
Professor, MD, DMSc Per Borghammer


Staff member
The gut is so important that when someone says, “I feel it in my gut” it is almost always spot on. The trick is to determine if the “feeling” is really coming from the brain (logic), heart (wishes) or the gut (truth).


Staff member
Now the need.is to find what the sources in the gut are. A vagotomy sounds like a very risky surgery. a constant feeling of nausea might be worse than parkensons.